Interoperability is greatly facilitated by a shared Technical Reference Model. The US Department of Defense developed these as a part of the Corporate Information Management (CIM) Initiative. A current TRM is available at http://ce.sharif.edu/courses/87-88/1/ce448/resources/root/EIAP-methodologies-references-models/DOD_TRM_V0.4_10Aug.pdf
Satellite Communications is shown in context in Figure 6 on page 17 in the above reference.
The OSI Technical Reference Model describes a seven-layer protocol stack.